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Environmental problems usually develop from the interactions of people, consumption, and resources. Increasing population, increasing consumption and limited resources exacerbate these problems. One concern that heads the list of critical problems is the availability of clean, fresh, surface water. It is the basis of the existence of human societies and economies. Fresh water is essential for many forms of life, is required by humans for drinking, agriculture, and most industrial processes, and plays a prominent role in our recreational activities.

Since we completed the second edition of this book in 1992 (Cooke et al., 1993), hundreds of millions of people have been added to the human population, each of them exerting demands and impacts on a finite supply of fresh water. As noted in our Introduction, the overall quality of lakes and reservoirs in many areas of the United States, southern Canada, and Europe continues to deteriorate. In some areas, fresh water resources are so polluted that economic systems and human health are impaired. Although there are several urgent global environmental problems, scientists, environmentalists, and policy makers must focus much more attention on the human population explosion and its well-known relationship to fresh water pollution. Certainly all nations should be taking significant steps to reduce the likelihood of global climate change and to limit additional water pollution and aquatic habitat destruction.

Lake and reservoir management and restoration methods are new technologies that have developed over the last 35 years, and are ones that promise to be of great significance in protecting and improving fresh water systems. We hope that our book will be a useful addition. Every lake or reservoir utilized by humans requires management. This may involve only monitoring to assure that it is not degraded, or it may require regular efforts to maintain it, perhaps with equipment or techniques that have been adopted to enhance or protect the system. Restoration of impaired lakes and reservoirs, in the strict sense, is not possible, but the term is applied to procedures to return the system to some approximation of an earlier, less disturbed condition. We are just beginning to learn the art and science of management and restoration.

Applied limnology developed as an extension of basic sciences. There is a great need to understand fresh water systems if we are to provide for their competent protection, management, and restoration for current and future generations. Long-term funding to support basic and applied limnology must be greatly expanded, and this must be recognized by politicians, administrators, and others who support science through policies and appropriations. We strongly endorse the work of the North American Lake Management Society (NALMS), and other professional and environmental organizations, which together have been so consistent in delivering this message to scientists, appropriate legislators, and citizens.

Our goals in this book are to describe the eutrophication process, outline methods for developing a pre-management and restoration diagnosis-feasibility study, and to provide detailed descriptions of scientifically sound management and restoration methods. Each chapter includes an introduction to the scientific basis of the problem, a description of the method’s procedures, and presents some case histories. Potential negative impacts and costs, where known, also are noted. The chapters are updated and extensively referenced, and three new chapters have been added to this edition. Our book will be useful as a classroom text, as a reference manual, and as a general guide for interested lake users.

This book is certainly not the last word on the topic. It is our sincere hope that it will stimulate new and improved perspectives and ideas in lake and reservoir management and restoration. The content of this book is a product of the study, input, and concurrence of all of the authors, as well as a product of our combined years of field and laboratory research in limnology.

Where appropriate and possible, we report costs in 2002 U.S. dollars by correcting for inflation. This was done by using year-to-year increases in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) to correct costs reported for earlier years to their present values. We thank Dr. Thomas S. Lough (Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California) for the use of his CPI scale to correct for inflation.

The contributions to this book by Spencer A. Peterson, an employee of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), were made on his own time, with Agency permission. However, the research and writing were independent of USEPA employment and have not been subjected to the Agency’s peer and administrative review. Therefore, the conclusions and opinions stated are solely those of the author and should not be construed to reflect the views of the USEPA.

Specific chapter authorship is: G. Dennis Cooke (Chapters 5, 9, 10, 13, 15, and 17), Eugene B. Welch (Chapters 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19), Spencer A. Peterson (Chapter 20), Stanley A. Nichols (Chapters 11, 12, 14, and 16), G. Dennis Cooke and Spencer A. Peterson (Chapters 1 and 2), and Eugene B. Welch and G. Dennis Cooke (Chapter 8).


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